Just as the preservation of various biological species is essential for maintaining nature’s balance, the safeguarding of cultural diversity is equally crucial for the thriving of humanity. UNESCO recognized this imperative by adopting the “Convention on the Protection of the Intangible Cultural Heritage” in 2003, and Mongolia, in turn, became a signatory in 2005. The preservation and advancement of global cultural diversity, including cultural heritage, have taken on paramount significance, signifying an urgent pursuit for humanity.

Underlining this endeavor, the National Intangible Cultural Heritage of Mongolia encompasses 279 distinct heritages, categorized within the overarching framework of dwelling, as confirmed by Ministerial Order No. A/759 of 2019. The following components encapsulate this heritage:

1. Native Languages, Oral Traditions, and Expressions

With approximately 7,000 languages spoken across the world, these linguistic threads connect cultures through their diverse origins. Mongolian, belonging to the Altai language family, intertwines with Turkic, Manchu, Hamnigan, Japanese, Korean, and more.

Currently, the Mongolian language resonates with over 5 million speakers, while a tapestry of oral dialects enriches its linguistic landscape. These dialects include Khalkh, Buriad, Bayad, Dervod, Kharkin Khorchin, Ould, Zahchin, Tsahar, Uzemchin, Khoton, Uriankhai, Barga, and Ordos. Geopolitical factors have led to a partition of the Mongolian language’s oral dialects, such as the Buriad language (Buriad Republic of Russia), Halimag language (Khalima Republic of Russia), Mongolian language (Afghanistan Mongols), Daghur language (Khar River, Inner Mongolia, and Dongxiang/Gansu Mongols), Mongor (Mongorians of Qinghai and Gansu), Baoani (Bounan Mongolians or Mongols of Qinghai and Gansu), among others. These variances are classified as independent languages or interconnected linguistic streams.

Further classification is feasible based on geographic nuances—Oirad or Western Mongolian oral dialect, Eastern Mongolian oral dialect, Central Mongolian oral dialect, and Southern Mongolian oral dialect.

The Mongolian language, a profound cultural legacy, has safeguarded Mongolians’ wisdom, history, and customs for countless generations. In this dwellings include:

  • The Avga dialect
  • Buriad oral dialect
  • Durvud oral dialect
  • Zakchin oral dialect
  • Myangad dialect
  • Torgud dialect
  • Tuva dialect
  • Uriankhai dialect
  • Khalkh dialect
  • Kazakh dialect of Altai
  • Mongolian script
  • Mongolian calligraphy
  • Mongolian-Cyrillic script
  • Tod letters
  •  Soyombo letters
  • Legends
  • Fairy tales with melodies
  • The intrigue of Dialectic tales
  • Bensen, Morin Khuur tales, carrying musical legacies
  • Echoes of Old talk, linking generations
  • Humor through Jokes
  • The playfulness of Funny words
  • Dom, embodying cultural connotations
  • Spells that weave mystical tales
  • The wisdom of Proverbs and sayings
  • Proverbs
  • Riddles
  • The enigma for recognition
  • Mongolian Triads
  • Quick telling
  • Idioms
  • Words of Libation
  • Words of Anointment
  • Words of summoning prosperity
  • Words of taboo
  • Words of curse
  • Title recitation
  • Words of propitious omens
  • Benediction
  • Odes
  • Words of worship
  • Verbal expressions tied to shamanism
  • The cadence of Dialectic words
  • Aytis
  • Milk Libation Auspicious
  • Generation lineage
  • Naming animals
  • Names of animals by age
  • Names of animal by gender

2. Folk Arts

Mongolia’s intangible cultural heritage encompasses diverse forms including ritual and short songs, traditional music like khuumii, Morin Khuur, flute, dance arts such as contortion and tsam (mask dance), along with traditional games and competitions like naadgai.

For example:

– Khalkh long song

– Oirad long song

– Buriad-Barga long song

– Darkhad-Arig Uriankhai long song

– Uzemchin-Dariganga long song

– Barga short song

– Bayad short song

– Buryatia short song

– Darkhad short song

– Dariganga short song

– Durvud short songs

– Zakhchin short song

– Myangad short song

– Uuld short song

– Sartuul short song

– Torgut is a short song

– Uriankhai short song

– Uzemchin short song

– Khalkh short song

– Khotgoid  short song

– Khoton short song

– Tsaatan short song

– Tsakhar short song

– Lullaby

– Duet song

– Khuree song

– Folk art of Mongolian khuumii

– Folk art of Morin Khuur music

– Folk art of playing  Morin Khuur

– The art of playing Ikel music

– The art of playing the four-string fiddle

– The art of playing khuuchir music

– The art of playing the Altai harp

– The art of playing the harp

– The art of playing Tovshuur music (lute)

– Dombra kyu

– The art of playing the Archery Khuur (fiddle)

– The art of Shudarga music playing

– The art of playing the stone drum

– The art of playing vibraphone

– The art of playing the flute

– The art of playing the bamboo fiddle

– The art of playing the metal fiddle

– The art of playing the trumpet

– The art of playing Bishguur (shawn)

– Kazakh dance

– Shamanic dance

– Pipe flute

– Tongue sound dance

– Dandyldakh

– Traditional art of whistling

– Giingoo, marzai for children of racing horses

– Shaman’s tune

– The heritage of Buddhism is included.

3. Traditional Festivals, Customs, Games, and Rituals

Traditions and customs illuminate the social fabric, offering profound insights into the psyche of communities. In this dwelling:

– Traditional Lunar New Year Rituals

– Mongolian Festival (Naadam)

– Nauryz

– Customs and rituals of new house ceremony and banqueted

– Rituals related to children

– Moving for new pasture culture

– Abstinence

– Shamanic Funeral Rituals

– Buddhist burial rituals

– Islamic funeral rites

– Festivals and rituals related to horse culture

– Festivals and rituals associated with camel culture

– Custom to castrate young animal

– Animal ritual related religion

– Dialects that are meaningful for work and distance

– Dialects relevant to animal husbandry

– Mongolian wrestling

– Horse racing

– Joroo horse race

– Camel race

– Camel ball

– National archery

– Buryatia archery

– Uriankhai archery

– Uzemchin archery

– Rust moving archery

– Tunkh archery

– ball shooting archery

– Horse archery

– Sarampai shooting

– Ankle shooting

– Ice Ankle shooting

– Traditional puzzle games

– Traditional word games

– Traditional fun games

– Traditional board and board games

– Mongolian chess

– Traditional paper and wooden games

– Playing with ankle bones

– Matching game

– Dembee

– Tenth

– Sound fingers

– card games etc.

4. Knowledge and practice related to the nature

– It is a treasure trove of traditional folk knowledge and methods of nature, seasons, life and economy, traditional knowledge of nature conservation, traditional knowledge of animals and land. In this dwelling:

– Traditional methods and practices of nature conservation

– Knowledge of geography

– Knowledge of choosing new areas

– Knowledge livestock

– Knowledge of racing horses

– Knowledge of preparation and racing horses

– Mongolian horoscope

– Fortune teller

– Stone pulling spell

– Names of landscape etc.
5. Traditional Methods

Mongolians have inherited and passed down unique traditional methods rooted in pastoralism from one generation to the next. This tradition involves preparing suitable food and beverages for their households, utilizing agricultural knowledge in medicine for both animals and humans. These time-honored practices have transcended generations, forming a remarkable legacy. In this dwelling:

– Traditional method of preparing white pudding

– Ajiin Bor curd preparation

– Tamir’s white curd recipe

– Mistress preparation technique

– Red food processing method

–  Dried meat process method

– Kaz preparation method

– Closed cooking approach

– Food preparation within animal stomachs

– Seed processing method

– Blue food processing

– Traditional Mongolian tea culture

– Tradition alcoholic beverage process method

– Mare milk fermentation technology

– Khoormog fermentation approach

– Ceremony meal juice preparation

– Leather processing in the traditional manner

– Wool cashmere processing tradition

– Felt crafting in the traditional way

– Class age names

– Hunting methods by bird

– Eagle hunting technique

– Plowing and cultivation practices

– Grains, fruits, and vegetables planting, harvesting, and bleaching methods

– Traditional therapy medicine

– Animal organ-based remedies

– Herbal medicine

– Dom spell-based remedies

– Acupuncture technique

– Cauterization technique

–  Medicine preparation method

– Gurem Dom approach

– Folk medicine for animal

– Traditional animal sting knowledge

– Traditional animal satiety

– Folk pedagogy

– Physical education knowledge

– Mongolian traditional genealogy knowledge etc.

6. Animal Husbandry Methods

Mongolia’s nomadic culture is intrinsically linked with animal husbandry. This culture’s growth was fueled by the astute adaptation of nomadic animal husbandry to Central Asia’s highland conditions, fostering various cultural heritages over millennia. Different methods and practices have evolved depending on the type of animal. In this compilation:

– Horse herding techniques

– Camel herding methods

– Cattle herding techniques

– Sheep herding method

– Goat herding methods

– Yak herding practices

– Livestock raising methods and etc.

7. Traditional Crafts

Distinctive traits define a nation’s handicrafts based on its cultural style. Nomadic Mongolians have contributed to crafting patterns, animal carrying equipment, woodwork, weaving, dyeing, leatherwork, blacksmithing, wood and bone carving, garment and shoe making, wrestling sacks, and deity crafts. Various traditional crafts have emerged. In this compilation:

– Barga clothing crafting tradition

– Bayad clothing crafting tradition

– Buriad clothing crafting tradition

– Darkhad clothing crafting tradition

– Dariganga clothing crafting tradition

– Durvud clothing crafting tradition

– Zachin clothing crafting tradition

– Kazakh clothing crafting tradition

– Myangat clothing crafting tradition

– Uuld clothing crafting tradition

– Torguud clothing craftsmanship

– Tuva clothing crafting tradition

– Uriankhai clothing crafting tradition

– Uzemchin clothing crafting tradition

– Khalkh clothing crafting tradition

– Hamnigan clothing crafting tradition

– Khotgoid clothing crafting tradition

– Khotgoid clothing crafting tradition

– Khoton crafting tradition

– Tsaatan clothing craftsmanship

– Mongolian hat making

– Mongolian shoemaking

– Buryatia shoemaking

– Wrestling clothes

– Horse race children’s clothing

– Archer’s clothing crafting

– Dressmaking classification

– Shaman clothing crafting

– Monks’ clothing craftsmanship

– Tsam (mask dance) crafting tradition

– Mongolian traditional Ger crafts

– Uyanga Ger crafts

– Yurt dwelling crafts

– Home furniture traditional crafting

– Kazakh Ger crafting tradition

– Buryatia Ger craft

– Mongolian traditional patterns

– Zumber crafts

– Sculpture

– Felt quilting

– Felt clothing making

– Mongolian traditional leather craft

– Mongolian traditional woodwork

– Cork craft

– National archery craft

– Uriankhai bow and arrow craft

– Buryara bow and arrow craft

– Alingar bow and arrow craft

– Silver cup making art

– Extreme knife crafting

– Mongolian saddle craft

– Mongolian blacksmith casting method

– Flintlock gun crafting technology

– Mongolian blacksmithing traditional methods

– Carpentry tools craftsmanship

– Labor tools craftsmanship

– Sculpture

– Shuumal crafts

– Naamal crafts

– Wood carving

– Bone carving

– Sniff bottle craft

– Zeeght Naamal traditional crafts

– Traditional handicrafts

– Embroidery and needlework tradition

– Coin weaving craft

– Traditional weaving and weaving

– Mongolian tying and tying art

– Mongolian art

– National musical instruments craftsmanship

– Violin making

– Traditional horse-drawn carriage making

– Traditional bullock cart making

– Traditional walker crafting

– Traditional container wagon making

– Traditional camel cart making

– Cover cage cart crafting etc


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“Нүүдэлчин” Дэлхийн соёлын фестивалийн удирдамж, гарын авлагыг эндээс татна уу